Why Water is Necessary For Life

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Why Water is Necessary For Life

Water makes up 60-75% of human body weight. Loss of only 4% of body water leads to dehydration, and loss of 15% can be fatal. Similarly, a person can live a month without food but cannot live for three days without water. This significant dependence on water governs all forms of life on a large scale. Water is essential for survival, but why make it so important?

Why Water is Necessary For Life

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Why Water is Necessary For Life


The Molecules are made up of water.

Many of the roles of water in supporting life are due to its molecular structure and specific characteristics. Water is a simple molecule consisting of a small, positively charged hydrogen atom and a large, negatively charged oxygen atom. When hydrogen is attached to oxygen, it produces a proportional molecule with a positive charge on one side and an adverse order on the other (Figure 1). This difference in compensation is called the polar coefficient, and it dictates how water interacts with other molecules.

Water is a Universal Solvent

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As polar molecules, the water interacts perfectly with other polar molecules, such as itself. This is due to the tendency in which negative charges attract each other. Because every molecule of water has negative parts and a positive part, each side is drawn to the opposite charge molecule. This attraction allows water to form relatively strong connections, called bonds, to other polar molecules around it, including other water molecules. In this case, the positive hydrogen of a water molecule will bind to the adjacent molecule’s harmful oxygen, whose own hydrogens are attracted to the next oxygen, and so on (Figure 1). The important thing is that in this relationship, water molecules stay together in a property called harmony. The integration of water molecules helps plants carry water to their roots. Harmony also contributes to the high boiling point of water, which helps animals regulate their body temperature.

Furthermore, since most biological molecules have some electrical balance, polar and water molecules can form bonds with both their positive and negative regions. In encircling the polar molecules of another substance, water penetrates all the niches and crevices between the molecules, effectively breaking it down and dissolving it. This is what happens when you add a drop of sugar to sugar. Water and sugar are both polar, allowing individual water molecules to surround the sugar molecules, breaking down the sugar, and dissolving it. Is done. Like polarity, some molecules are made up of ions or particles that compensate for it. Water separates these ionic molecules by interacting with both positive and negatively charged particles. This is what happens when you add salt to the water because salt contains sodium and chloride ions.

The vast water ability to dissolve many molecules has earned it the status of “universal solvent”. This ability makes water such an invaluable life-sustaining force. At the biological level, water as a solution helps cells to use oxygen or nutrients. Water-based solutions such as blood help move molecules to where they are needed. Thus, the role of water as a solvent facilitates transport molecules such as respiratory oxygen and has a huge impact on the ability and quality of drugs to reach their targets in the body.

Water Supports Cellular Structure

Water also has an essential structural role in biology. Water fills the cells to help maintain vision, shape, and texture (Figure 2). The water inside many cells (which make up the human body) creates pressure that opposes external forces, such as inflating a balloon. However, even some plants that can maintain their cell structure without water still need water to survive. Water allows everything inside the cells to take on a unique shape. Because the condition is essential for biochemical processes, it is one of the most crucial water roles.

Water also helps in the formation of surrounding cell membranes. A membrane surrounds each cell on Earth, mostly made up of two layers of molecules called phospholipids (Figure 3). Like water, phospholipids have two distinct components: a polar “head” and a non-polar “tail”. Because of this, polar heads interact with water, while non-polar tails try to avoid water and communicate with each other instead. In search of these favorable interactions, phospholipids automatically form boilers, leaving the water facing the outside of the sides and the tail. The biliary encloses the cells and allows substances such as salts and nutrients to enter and exit the cell. The interactions are involved in the formation of the membrane are so strong that the membrane becomes unstructured and does not interfere easily. Without water, cell membrane structure would be lacking, and without proper membrane structure, cells would fail to keep vital molecules inside the cell and harmful molecules outside the cell.

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